In a biological cycle, materials are decomposed by micro-organisms to form new nutrients. Biodegradable products are transformed into compost, thus forming a base of nutrients that can be used by new natural resources.
All products that belong to this cycle are called “consumption products”. In the C2C vision, clothing, footwear or any other products that wear out in use – such as tires – must be designed with a view to returning to the soil, with only substances that are compatible with the biological cycle. The diagram below, which shows an example of the manufacture of a biodegradable bioplastic bottle, illustrates this.
Usually, what we call “recycling” is more like “subcycling” because it is often a source of value destruction (e.g. simple energy recovery is a source of loss of precious nutrients).
Here, the cycle is closed and has a positive impact since the bottle has been eco-designed from 100% biodegradable components and can therefore return to the soil from which it is made (e. g. corn starch) to be used as compost.